TOOTHED FUNGI 

Toothed fungi have a fertile hymenium (spore-producing surface) consisting of downward pointing spines. Although all the fungi listed below share the same toothed morphological characteristic, most are not closely relatedDelicious hericiums (lion’s mane) are parasites and saprotrophs of trees. They tend to be white and their spines release white spores. They are more closely related to the gilled russulas and lactarius than they are to any other toothed fungus.  

Most hydnums are white, pale tan, yellowish to orange in color. A fleeting glance of them might lead you to think you have found a chanterelle. In fact they are more closely related to edible chanterelles than they are to  other terrestrial toothed fungi.  Hydnum umbilicatum and Hydnum olympicanum (formerly Hydnum repandum), for example, are mycorrhizal partners with many forest trees and bushes. Hydnums have white spores.  Phellodons are also mycorrhizal. They also have white spines and white spores.  

Hydnellums have brown spores and tend to engulf nearby forest debris as they expand. Sarcodons are mycorrhizal with pine, also have brown spores and a tan hymenium that turns brown. Both sarcodons and hydnellums are in the Bankeraceae family of the Thelephorales order.


View photos and descriptions of toothed fungi common in the northeast by clicking on their scientific name from the alphabetically arranged list posted below this photo. 

sarcodon-underwoodii01937 med

Sarcodon underwooidii

BANKERA____violascens (See PHELLODON) 

CLIMACODON____pulcherrimus____ septentrionalis

HERICIUM (Re: Russulas)____americanum____coralloides (ramosum)____erinaceus

HYDNELLUM____aurantiacum____caeruleum____concrescens____cristatum____ferrugineum,____peckii ____scrobiculatum ____spongiosipes____suaveolens

HYDNOPHLEBIA____chrysorhizon (Oxydontia chrysorhiza)

HYDNUM (Re: Chanterelles)____albidum____rufescens____subolypicum(repandum)____umbillicatum

IRPEX____lacteus

MUCRONELLA____bresodolae____calva____flava____pendula

MYCORRHAPHIUM____adustum

PHELLODON____alboniger____confluens____niger____violascens

PSEUDOHYDNUM____gelatinosum

RADULODON (RADULOMYCES, SARCODONTIA)____copelandii

SARCODON____atroviridis____cristata____scabrosus____underwoodii

SARCODONTIA____setosa

SPONGIOPELLIS____pachydon

STECCHERINUM____ochraceum____subrawakense

TRICHAPTUM ____abietinum____biforme